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History

March 15 44 BCE The Ides of March and Julius Caesar Murdered


Death Of Caesar by C.I. Doughty

On March 15th 44 BCE, Julius Caesar, the “dictator for life” of the Roman Empire, was murdered by his own senators at a meeting in a hall next to Pompey’s Theatre. The conspiracy against Caesar encompassed as many as sixty noblemen, including Caesar’s own protege, Marcus Brutus.

Caesar planned to leave Rome to fight in a war on March 18 and had appointed loyal members of his army to rule the Empire in his absence. The Republican senators, already chafing at having to abide by Caesar’s decrees, were particularly angry about the prospect of taking orders from Caesar’s underlings. Cassius Longinus started the plot against the dictator, quickly getting his brother-in-law Marcus Brutus to join.

Julius Caesar was born in Rome on 12 or 13 July 100 BC into the prestigious Julian clan. His family were closely connected with the Marian faction in Roman politics. Caesar himself progressed within the Roman political system, becoming in succession quaestor (69), aedile (65) and praetor (62). In 61-60 BC he served as governor of the Roman province of Spain. Back in Rome in 60, Caesar made a pact with Pompey and Crassus, who helped him to get elected as consul for 59 BC. The following year he was appointed governor of Roman Gaul where he stayed for eight years, adding the whole of modern France and Belgium to the Roman empire, and making Rome safe from the possibility of Gallic invasions. He made two expeditions to Britain, in 55 BC and 54 BC.

Caesar then returned to Italy, disregarding the authority of the senate and famously crossing the Rubicon river without disbanding his army. In the ensuing civil war Caesar defeated the republican forces. Pompey, their leader, fled to Egypt where he was assassinated. Caesar followed him and became romantically involved with the Egyptian queen, Cleopatra.

Caesar was now master of Rome and made himself consul and dictator. He used his power to carry out much-needed reform, relieving debt, enlarging the senate, building the Forum Iulium and revising the calendar. Dictatorship was always regarded a temporary position but in 44 BC, Caesar took it for life. His success and ambition alienated strongly republican senators.

Caesar should have been well aware that many of the senators hated him, but he dismissed his security force not long before his assassination. Reportedly, Caesar was handed a warning note as he entered the senate meeting that day but did not read it. After he entered the hall, Caesar was surrounded by senators holding daggers. Servilius Casca struck the first blow, hitting Caesar in the neck and drawing blood. The other senators all joined in, stabbing him repeatedly about the head.

Marcus Brutus wounded Caesar in the groin and Caesar is said to have remarked in Greek, “You, too, my child?” In the aftermath of the assassination, Antony attempted to carry out Caesar’s legacy. However, Caesar’s will left Octavian in charge as his adopted son. Cassius and Brutus tried to rally a Republican army and Brutus even issued coins celebrating the assassination, known as the Ides of March. Octavian vowed revenge against the assassins, two years later Cassius and Brutus committed suicide after learning that Octavian’s forces had defeated theirs at the Battle of Philippa in Greece.

Antony took his armies east, where he hooked up with Caesar’s old paramour, Cleopatra. Octavian and Antony fought for many years until Octavian prevailed. In 30 B.C., Antony committed suicide. Octavian, later known as Augustus, ruled the Roman Empire for many more years.

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Discussion

16 thoughts on “March 15 44 BCE The Ides of March and Julius Caesar Murdered

  1. All the conspirators made off, and he lay there lifeless for some time, until finally three common slaves put him on a litter and carried him home, with one arm hanging down. And of so many wounds none, in the opinion of the physician Antistius, would have proved mortal except the second one in the breast.

    Like

    Posted by Dugutigui | March 15, 2012, 12:18 am
  2. For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar’s angel. Judge, O you gods, how dearly Caesar lov’d him! This was the most unkindest cut of all; For when the noble Caesar saw him stab, Ingratitude, more strong than traitors’ arms, Quite vanquish’d him: then burst his mighty heart. . . .

    Like

    Posted by --Rick | March 15, 2012, 1:06 am
  3. What a downfall…to start out well and succumb, first, to pride…eventually not even reading the warnings. So human. No winners here, it seems.

    Like

    Posted by Brook | March 15, 2012, 1:21 am
  4. Oh, for the good ol’ days!

    Like

    Posted by Ray | March 15, 2012, 1:57 am
  5. Hi,
    It is really sad that some people still will do just about anything to have power over other people, in some countries, they will still kill for that power.

    Like

    Posted by magsx2 | March 15, 2012, 4:47 am
  6. I love Roman history…… Greek Methodology etc!

    This was an amazing post AND source of information.

    Like

    Posted by A Woman and Her Pen! | March 15, 2012, 10:08 pm
  7. Beware the Ides of March! Great post. I’m a big fan of Roman history. Isn’t there some debate to as whether Caesar actually landed in Britain (or did I imagine that)?

    Like

    Posted by steviegill | March 15, 2012, 10:33 pm
  8. History has so many lessons which we can each devise for ourselves…. thanks for the great post!

    Like

    Posted by abtwixt | March 16, 2012, 12:24 am
  9. Fantastic post – they where all mentally sick in those days and .. there will always be some mentally sick rulers in our world – so it has become a bit better … but we will never be free from them. Because in all their mental instability they sound very promising and believable.

    Like

    Posted by viveka | March 16, 2012, 7:26 pm
  10. I agree that this was a great post.

    Like

    Posted by mulrickillion | March 16, 2012, 10:34 pm

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